Impact of Climate Change on Sustainable Pastoral Livelihoods in Loima Sub-County, Turkana County, Kenya


  • C.A. Imana University of the Free State
  • M. Zenda University of the Free State



Sustainability, Pastoralists, Livelihoods, Climate Change, Turkana


Climate change and variability have adversely affected communities’ pastoral livelihoods in Kenya. The study aimed to investigate sustaining pastoral livelihoods in a changing climate in Loima Sub-County, Turkana County, Kenya. A total of 59 pastoralists were interviewed using a questionnaire. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 22. SPSS employed descriptive statistical techniques like frequencies, percentages, cross-tabulations and proportions, means, and standard deviation. Pie charts, graphs, figures, and tables were used to present the data analysis output. Climate has been observed to vary continuously by pastoralists. Climate hazards mostly reported were livestock diseases and the frequency of droughts. The findings also indicated that livestock keepers preferred to graze their livestock on mountains/hills. Pasture and water availability and security determine the pattern of livestock movement. Pastoralists adopted various strategies to cope with climatic changes. Some of these strategies included diverse utilisation of livestock products, controlled grazing, herd diversification, and labour distribution among household members. In conclusion, climatic change and variability effects on the livelihoods of the pastoralists are evident. However, they have diversified ways of adapting and coping with these catastrophes to sustain themselves. To avert the effects of climate change, Turkana agriculture extension officers should focus on value addition to livestock products, provision of livestock insurance schemes, veterinary services, and livestock disease surveillance. Furthermore,  agriculture extension needs to develop and enforce livestock policies and develop appropriate contingency plans. Among the policies recommended are- the management of grazing areas, regulations on migratory routes, and rules governing the use of water sources.


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How to Cite

Imana, C., & Zenda, M. (2023). Impact of Climate Change on Sustainable Pastoral Livelihoods in Loima Sub-County, Turkana County, Kenya. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension (SAJAE), 51(1), 13–33.