Effects of Goat Breed Improvement Program on Climate Change Resilience Among Smallholder Farmers in Semi-Arid Zimbabwe


  • W. Bvirwa
  • J.P. Musara
  • G.B. Nyamushamba




Goat Breed Improvement Programme, Climate change, Livelihood, Resilience, Small goat farmers


The goat breeding improvement program played a crucial role in addressing the challenges of climate change vulnerability among the smallholder farmers of climate change-vulnerable communities in Gokwe North district, Zimbabwe. Using cross-sectional data from 217 small-scale farmers in four randomly selected wards in the Gokwe North district of Zimbabwe, the study examined the effect of the program on households’ climate change adaptation capabilities using proxy variables including food security, asset acquisition, access to affordable credit, and enhanced business management competencies. Primary data were collected using questionnaires. Results show that there were gains in credit access, asset base improvements, food security and income. The evaluation established an excellent potential for sustainability or continued flow of benefits beyond the program’s lifetime, given the institutional capacity building implemented under the program. There were impacts regarding the program accruing positive changes in well-being, improved livelihoods, and community adaptation even in the face of climate change and an ever-changing economic policy environment. Gokwe North District can be further transformed, given the level of commercialisation of the goat project among the participating members of the community, if extension support is provided in a way that suits the farmers’ capacities to learn.


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Author Biography

J.P. Musara

Joseph P. Musara is a lecturer at Gwanda State
University in the Agricultural Economics unit
under the Crop Science Department. He is
actively involved in research for commercialising
crop-livestock integrated systems in the drylands
of Zimbabwe.


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How to Cite

Bvirwa, W., Musara, J., & Nyamushamba, G. (2023). Effects of Goat Breed Improvement Program on Climate Change Resilience Among Smallholder Farmers in Semi-Arid Zimbabwe. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension (SAJAE), 51(4), 31–51. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3221/2023/v51n4a13093