Achieving the NDP 2030 agricultural agenda in UMzimkhulu: myth or possibility




NDP 2030, Capacitation, Agricultural agenda, Rural farming projects


The South African Constitution has often been adjudged one of the most progressive constitutions ever written. However, transforming the theoretical content of the Constitution into a reality has proved to be a challenge. Considering that, the NDP 2030 is widely acknowledged as a well-thought-out and structured plan, the converting of the NDP 2030 vision into reality is discussed amongst cynics, who often consider it as an unrealistic vision based on the current circumstances and timeframe. In consonance with the afore-narrative, this paper explores the current circumstances of the Agricultural sector within the UMzimkhulu Municipality and gauges against the agricultural agenda set forth in the NDP 2030. To unravel this nexus, the paper pursues a qualitative approach wherein face-to-face interviews were conducted amongst 63 farmers. Prior to the interview, a pretest was conducted to ascertain the suitability of the instrument. The professional personnel were from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development; the Department of Water and Sanitation, alongside other key stakeholders within three farming projects in UMzimkhulu, KwaZulu-Natal, Province, South Africa. The conceding view amongst most of the respondents indicated that the agricultural plan outlined in the NDP 2030 was far from attainment considering the current resources, skills, personnel, and timeframe. Thus, the paper advocates several proactive mitigations such as capacitation, tailor-made investments, institutional reinvigoration, and formidable partnerships amidst other practicable recommendations.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


BAKRE, R.O., 2015. Water resource management for subsistence farming in ward 19 of KwaZulu-Natal (online). M.Tech, Durban University of Technology. Retrieved from:

BAKRE, O. & DORASAMY, N., 2017. Driving urban-rural migration through investment in water resource management in subsistence farming: the case of Machi-bini. Environmental Economics, 8(1), 66-74. doi:10.21511/ee.08(1).2017.07. DOI:

BOETTIGER, S., DENIS, N. & SANGHVI, S., 2017. Readiness for agricultural transformation. In cp: Successful agricultural transformations: Six core elements of planning and delivery, Mckinsey Centre for Agricultural. Available online:

BOJANIC, H.A. 2017. The Rapid Agricultural Development of Brazil in the Last 20 Years. Special Issue on The Brazilian Agri‐food Sector, 16(1): 5-10. Available: (Accessed 10 April 2020). DOI:

BHATTI, A. KOIKE, T. & NASU, S. 2012. Water resources management: pathways for sustainable economic growth and poverty eradication. Retrieved from:

CALZADILLA, A., ZHU, K.T., REHDANZ, R. S. TOL, J. & RINGLER, C., 2013. Economy-wide Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics 93:150–65. DOI:

COSATU., 2013. Summary of Critique of the National Development Plan, March 2013 - Draft (Online). Congress of South African Trade Unions. Retrieved from:

DAFF., 2011. Trends in the agricultural sector 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.nda.agricza/docs/statsinfo/Trends2011.pdf.

DE JANVRY, A. & SADOULET, E., 2019. Transforming developing country agriculture: Removing adoption constraints and promoting inclusive value chain development.

DEN HARTIGH, W., 2016: Agriculture-is-still-creating-employment-in-South Africa. Retrieved From:

DILSHAD, R.M., & LATIF, M.I., 2013. Focus Group Interview as a Tool for Qualitative Research: An Analysis; Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS). 33 (1): 191-198.

DWS., 2016. Regional Water Allocation Reform Implementation Plan: Kwazulu-Natal 2013. 2018, Department of Water and Sanitation, Republic of South Africa.

FREITAS, H., OLIVEIRA, M., JENKINS, M. & POPJOY, O., 1998. The Focus Group, a qualitative research method. ISRC, Merrick School of Business, University of Baltimore (MD, EUA), WP ISRC No. 010298.

GARANE, P 2017. Extension and Advisory Services from an Agricultural Innovation Systems outlook: Evaluating UMzimkhulu Agriculture Co-operatives in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Masters dissertation. University of Free State.

HORNBY, D. & COUSINS, B., 2016. Rethinking agriculture in South Africa: Constraints and opportunities. Retrieved from: pdf/PLAAS%20Rethinking%20Agriculture_report.pdf.

IFAD., 2016. Rural development report 2016. Fostering inclusive rural transformation. Retrieved from:

KHAPAYI, M. & CELLIERS, P,R., 2016. Factors limiting and preventing emerging farmers to progress to commercial agricultural farming in the King William's Town area of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension. 44 (1). DOI:

KLEIN, N., 2012. Real wage, labor productivity, and employment trends in South Africa: A closer look (No. 12-92). International Monetary Fund. DOI:

KNUPPE, K., 2011. The Challenges Facing Sustainable and Adaptive Groundwater Management in South Africa. Water SA 37 (1): 67–79. DOI:

LURULI, N.M. & MOUTON, J., 2016. The early history of research funding in South Africa: From the Research Grant Board to the FRD. S Afr J Sci. 2016;112 (5/6), Art. #2015-0097, 6 pages. sajs.2016/20150097.

MABUZA, M.E., 2014. Functionality; productivity; and challenges of land redistribution in Ehlanzeni Region of Mpumalanga Province: a case study of Mbombela Local municipality with reference to Lahlamali Community Property Association. Masters dissertation. University of Limpopo.

MANENZHE, T,Z., ZWANE, E,M. & VAN NIEKERK, J.A., 2016. Factors affecting sustainability of land reform projects in Ehlanzeni district Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. South African Journal Agricultural Extension. 44, 2, 2016: 30 – 41. DOI:

MCLAFFERTY, I., 2004. Methodological issues in nursing research. Focus group interviews as a data collecting strategy; School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Dundee, Ninewells, Dundee, UK 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 48(2), 187–194.

MERCURE, J.F., PAIM, M.A., BOCQUILLON, P., LINDNER, S., SALAS, P., MARTINELLI, P., BERCHIN, I.I., DE ANDRADE GUERRA, J.B., DERANI, C., DE ALBUQUERQUE JUNIOR, C.L. & RIBEIRO, J.M., 2019. System complexity and policy integration challenges: the Brazilian Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 105, 230-243. DOI:

MITRANI, T, A. & BLAUSTEIN, J., 2008. Government focal point. Institute for desert research, Ben Gurion University, Chairman of Land Development Committee, Jewish National Fund (JNF), Israel.

Morgan, D, L., 2013. Focus groups as qualitative research: Planning and research design for focus groups; SAGE Research Methods. 10.4135/9781412984287.n4.

NEPHAWE, N., MWALE, M. ZUWARIMWE, J. & TJALE, M.M., 2021. The Impact of Water-Related Challenges on Rural Communities Food Security Initiatives. Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development Research, 7(1). DOI:

NEVES, D. & DU TOIT, A., 2013. Rural Livelihoods in South Africa: Complexity, Vulnerability and Differentiation. Journal of Agrarian Change, 13(1), 93–115. DOI:

PAUW, K., MCDONALD, S. and PUNT, C., 2007. Agricultural efficiency and welfare in South Africa. Development Southern Africa, 24(2), 309-333. DOI:

PETERSEN, S. 2020. Does a dominant party democracy erode constitutional legitimacy? An analysis of the African national congress and the South African constitution. Masters dissertation, University of Cape Town. Available: (Accessed 21 August 2020).

PRASAD, R., 2019. Agricultural Sciences in India and Struggle against Famine, Hunger and Malnutrition. IJHS, 54.3. Available: (Accessed 12 August 2020). DOI:

PRETTY, J. & BHARUCHA, Z.P., 2015. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa. Insects. 6(1):152-182. Available: (Accessed 21 July 2020). DOI:

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. Ministry of Economic Development., 2010. The new growth path: the framework. Pretoria: Government Printer.

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. Office of the Presidency., 2011. National Development Plan: vision for 2030. Pretoria.

SCOONES, I., AMANOR, K., FAVARETO, A. & Qi, G., 2016. A new politics of development cooperation? Chinese and Brazilian engagements in African agriculture. World Development, 81, 1-12. DOI:

SEBOLA, M.P., 2015. Ed. Local Government Administration in Post-apartheid South Africa: Some Critical Perspectives. 1st ed. Polokwane: Batatlea Publishers (Pty) Ltd.

TRADING ECONOMICS, SOUTH AFRICA., 2019. South Africa-Employment In Agriculture (% of Total Employment): Retrieved from: South Africa – Trading Economics.

UMZIMKHULU LOCAL MUNICIPALITY., 2016. Integrated Development Plan 2016/ 2017. (Online), Available:

VIVIER, E. & WENTZEL, M., 2013: Community Participation and Service Delivery: perceptions among residents in Cape Town. Journal of Public Administration. Available:

ZARENDA, H., 2013. South Africa’s National Development Plan and its implications for regional development. Tralac Working Paper No. D13WP01/2013. Retrieved from: And




How to Cite

Bakre, R., Amoo, O., Garane, P., & Ojugbele, H. (2021). Achieving the NDP 2030 agricultural agenda in UMzimkhulu: myth or possibility. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension (SAJAE), 49(3), 46–61.