A review of possibilities for using animal tracking devices to mitigate stock theft in smallholder livestock farming systems in rural South Africa

  • S. Zantsi
  • T. Nkunjana
Keywords: GPS, Agricultural extension, integrative review, stock theft

Abstract

Stock theft is among the major challenges faced by livestock farmers in South Africa. It has severe consequences especially for smallholder farmers, who collectively own a large share of the South African livestock herds but individually keep small herds. In recent years, technological improvements and innovations have made it possible to track livestock movements by using GPS animal tracking devices. Low-cost GPS has been developed and used elsewhere and in the local commercial sector. Given the well-known role of extension, i.e. information and technology dissemination, the possibility that smallholders adopt GPS animal tracking devices should be evaluated. However, very few studies have made a case for using this technology in curbing stock theft among smallholder farmers. This review therefore addresses the likelihood that smallholder livestock farmers in South Africa adopt GPS animal tracking devices to mitigate the impact of stock theft. Using a semi-systematic and a snowball literature review approach, we consulted and reviewed the relevant literature and official statistics relating to stock theft and smallholder livestock farming. Results from the reviewed literature suggest that the likelihood of GPS animal tracking device adoption by smallholders will depend on a) the awareness about the devices and how they work, b) the acuteness of stock theft for a farmer and how livestock contributes the farmer’s livelihood, and c) the income level, access to mobile phones and risk behaviour of farmers. Our literature findings identify areas for future research and may help agricultural extension personnel with future research topics.

References

AKER, J.C. 2011. Dial “A” for agriculture: A review of information and communication technologies for agricultural extension in developing countries. Agric. Econ., 42(6):631-647

ALIBER, M. & HART, T.G.B. 2009. Should subsistence farming be supported as a strategy to address rural food insecurity? Agrekon, 48(4):434-458

ALIBER, M., GWALA, L., YUSUF, F., RAHIM, A., MUSHUNJE, A., ARWARI, M., MAKHUNGA, Z. & SHILIGA, Z. 2017. Government and small-scale agriculture: Understanding the successes and failures in respect of learning, planning and implementation. Research report. Available from: http://psppdknowledgerepository.org/component/jdownloads/download/287-government-and-small-scale-agriculture-understanding-the-successes-and-failures-in-respect-of-learning-planning-and-implementation. Accessed: 16 February 2020

ALIBER, M. 2019. How can we promote a range of livelihood opportunities through land redistribution? Working Paper No. 58. Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, South Africa

ANDERSON, J. & FEDER, G. 2004. Agricultural extension: Good intentions and hard realities. World Bank Res. Obser., 19(1):41-60

BAHTA, Y.T., JORDAAN, A. & MUYAMBO, F. 2016. Communal farmers' perception of drought in South Africa: Policy implication for drought risk reduction. Int. J. Disast. Risk Red., 20:39-50

BAIYEGUNHI, L.J.S., MAJOKWENI, Z.P. & FERRER, S.R.D. 2019. Impact of outsourced agricultural extension program on smallholder farmers’ net farm income in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Technol. Soc., 57:1-7

BERCKMANS, D. 2017. General introduction to precision livestock farming. Anim. Front., 7(1):6-11

BOOYSEN, J. 2019. Local app helps farmers protect their livestock. IOL. June 16. Available at www.iol.co.za/business-report/economy/local-app-helps-farmers-protect-their-livestock-26131747

CHIPFUPA, U. & WALE, E. 2020. Linking earned income, psychological capital and social grant dependency: Empirical evidence from rural KwaZulu Natal (South Africa) and implications for policy. J. Econ. Struct., 9:22

CLACK, W.J. 2015. The role of social media in livestock theft: A case study. Acta Criminol.: South. Afr. J. Criminol., 28(1):112-127

CLACK, W. 2018. Livestock theft: A global and South African perspective. Stock theft report presented at the National Red Meat Producers Congress, 11-12 September, Pretoria, South Africa

CLARK, P.E., JOHNSON, D.E., KNIEP, M.A., JERMANN, P., HUTTASH, B., WOOD, A., JOHNSON, M., MCGILLIVAN, C. & TITUS, K. 2006. An advanced, low-cost, GPS-based animal tracking system. Rangeland Ecol. Manage., 59(3):334-340

CONNOR, T. 2020. Rural transformation, network society and the information age: The case of Nkonkobe District Municipality in the Eastern Cape. Jnl. Transd. Res in Sou. Afr., 16 (1): a825. https://doi.org/10.4102/td.v16i1.825

CONRADIE, B.I. 2013. Urban agriculture's enterprise potential: Exploring vegetable box schemes in Cape Town. Agrekon, 52(sup1):64-86

COUSINS, B. 2015. ‘Through a glass, darkly’: Towards agrarian transformation in South Africa. In Cousins, B. & Walker, C. (Eds.), Land divided, land restored. Land reform in South Africa for the 21st century. Jacana, Auckland Park, South Africa

DANIELS, R.C., PARTRIDGE, A., KEKANA, D. & MUSUNDWA, S. 2013. Rural livelihoods in South Africa. SALDRU Working Paper No. 122, NIDS Discussion Paper 2013/4. University of Cape Town, South Africa

DAVIS, K. 2008. Extension in sub-Saharan Africa: Overview and assessment of past and current models, and future prospects. J. Int. Agric. Ext. Edu., 15(3):15-28

DAVIS, K.E. & TERBLANCHÉ, S.E. 2016. Challenges facing the agricultural extension landscape in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 44(2):231-247

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES. 2010. Livestock numbers: communal and commercial- November 2010. Pretoria, South Africa

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES (DAFF). 2017. Abstract of agricultural statistics. Private Bag X144. Directorate: Knowledge and Information Management, Pretoria, South Africa

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES (DAFF). 2019. Abstract of agricultural statistics. Private Bag X144. Directorate: Knowledge and Information Management, Pretoria, South Africa

ESCÓS, J., ALADOS, C.L. & BOZA, J. 1993. Leadership in a domestic goat herd. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 38(1):41-47

FIELKE, S., TAYLOR, B. & JAKKU, E. 2020. Digitalisation of agricultural knowledge and advice networks: A state-of-the art review. Agric. Syst., 180:102763

GELDENHUYS, K. 2020. Stock theft : a costly, cruel crime – research. Servamus Community-based Safety and Security Magazine, 113 (3):14-20

GONI, S., SKENJANA, A. & NYANGIWE, N., 2018. The status of livestock production in communal farming areas of the Eastern Cape: A case of Majali Community, Peelton. Appl. Anim. Husb. Rural Dev., 11:34-40

GOUSE, M. 2012. GM maize as a subsistence crop: The South African smallholder experience. AgBioForum, 15(2):163-174

GWIRIRI, L.C., BENNETT, J., MAPIYE, C. & BURBI, S. 2019. Unpacking the emergent farmer concept in agrarian reform: Evidence from livestock farmers in South Africa. Dev. Change, 50(6):1664-1686

HULL, E. 2014. The social dynamics of labour shortage in South African small-scale agriculture. World Dev., 59(1):451-460

KIRSTEN, J.F. & VAN ZYL, J. 1998. Defining small-scale farmers in the South African context. Agrekon, 37(4):551-562

KNIGHT, C.W., BAILEY, D.W. & FAULKNER, D. 2018. Low-cost Global Positioning System tracking collars for use on cattle. Rangeland Ecol. Manage., 71:506-508

KUNENE-NGUBANE, P., CHIMONYO, M. & KOLANISI, K. 2018. Possibility of organic beef production on South African communal farms. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 46(1):1-13

LIEBENBERG, F. 2015. Agricultural advisory services in South Africa. Discussion Paper, 17 July. University of Pretoria, South Africa. Available from: http://www.up.ac.za/media/shared/108/2015%20Working%20papers/agric_advisory_services.zp64017.pdf. Accessed: 20 October 2019

LOMBARD, W.A., VAN NIEKERK, H.N. & MARÉ, F.A. 2017. Assessing the economic impact of livestock theft in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. 21st International Farm Management Congress, John McIntyre Conference Centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

LOMBARD, W.A. & VAN ROOYEN, F.M. 2017. Stock theft trends and the role of unmarked livestock. Stockfarm, 7(4):8-9

LUKHALO, T. 2017. An expenditure review of the agricultural extension system in South Africa. Master’s Thesis. University of Pretoria, South Africa

LYNE, M.C., JONAS, N & ORTMANN, G.F. 2018. A quantitative assessment of an outsourced agricultural extension service in the Umzimkhulu District of KwaZuluNatal, South Africa. Jnl. of Agric. Educ. Ext., 24:1, 51-64

MALULEKE, W., OBIOHA, E.E. & MOFOKENG, J.T. 2014. Assessment of policing and prevention strategies of stock theft in South Africa: A case study of Giyani Policing Area, Republic of South Africa. Mediterr. J. Soc. Sci., 5(23):2148-2157

MALULEKE, W. & MOFOKENG, J.T. 2016. The use of deoxyribonucleic acid in combating stock theft: Experiences and recommendations of South African Police Service KwaZulu-Natal selected stock theft units. Int. J. Bus. Manage. Stud., 8(1):50-69

MALULEKE, W., MOKWENA, R.J. & MOTSEPA, L.L. 2016. Rural farmers’ perspectives on stock theft: Police crime statistics. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 44(2):256-274

MAROTO-MOLINA, F., NAVARRO-GARCÍA, J., PRÍNCIPE-AGUIRRE, K., GÓMEZ-MAQUEDA, G., GUERRERO-GINEL, J.E., GARRIDO-VARO, A. & PÉREZ-MARÍN, D.C. 2019. A low-cost IoT-based system to monitor the location of a whole herd. Sensors, 19:2298

MTHI, S., SKENJANA, A. & FAYEMI, P.O. 2017. Characteristics of small-scale sheep production systems in some communal areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Int. J. Livest. Prod., 8(12):199-206

MUZARI, W., GATSI, W. & MUVHUNZI, S. 2012. The impacts of technology adoption on smallholder agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. J. Sustain. Dev., 5(8):69-77

NEL, C. 2016. Keep track of your cattle 24/7. Farmers’ Weekly, 15 March 2016

NIEUWOUDT, W.L. 2000. An economic evaluation of a crop insurance programme for small-scale commercial farmers in South Africa. Agrekon, 39(3):269-291

NKWARI, P.K.M., RIMER, S. & PAUL, B.S. 2014. Cattle monitoring system using wireless sensor network in order to prevent cattle rustling. In Cunningham, P. & Cunningham, M. (Eds.), IST-Africa 2014 Conference Proceedings. IIMC International Information Management Corporation, Ireland

NTSEBEZA, L. 2002. Cattle production in Xhalanga District. In: Ainslie, A. (Ed.), Cattle ownership and production in the communal areas of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Research Report No. 10. Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, South Africa

OKUNLOLA, A., NGUBANE, M., COUSINS, B. & DU TOIT, A. 2016. Challenging the stereotypes: Small-scale black farmers and private sector support programmes in South Africa. Research Report No. 53. Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, South Africa

PIENAAR, P.L. 2013. Typology of smallholder farming in South Africa’s former homelands: Towards an appropriate classification system. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Stellenbosch University, South Africa

PIENAAR, L. & VON FINTEL, D. 2014. Hunger in the former apartheid homelands: Determinants of convergence one century after the 1913 Land Act. Agrekon, 53(4):38-67

RAIDIMI, E.N. 2014. The roles and activities of women in the six selected agricultural projects in Thulamela Local Municipality of Vhembe District Municipality in the Limpopo Province. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 42(2):10-23

SATO, S. 1982. Leadership during actual grazing in a small herd of cattle. Appl. Anim. Ethol., 8(1-2):53-65

SCHIELTZ, J.M., OKANGA, S., ALLAN, B.F. & RUBENSTEIN, D.I. 2017. GPS tracking cattle as a monitoring tool for conservation and management. Afr. J. Range For. Sci., 34(3):173-177

SCHEEPERS, G., MALEKIAN, R., BOGATINOSKA, D.C. AND STOJKOSKA, B.R. 2017. A low-power cost-effective flexible solar panel powered device for wireless livestock tracking. 25th Telecommunications forum, Serbia, Belgrade, November 21-22

SCHOLTZ, M.M. & BESTER, J. 2010. Off-take and production statistics in the different South African cattle sectors: Results of a structured survey. Appl. Anim. Husb. Rural Dev., 3:19-23

SNYDER, H. 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. J. Bus. Res., 104:333-339

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 2016. General Household Survey, 2016. Available from: http://www.statssa.gov.za/?p=9922

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 2018. General Household Survey, 2018 [dataset]. Version 1. Pretoria, South Africa

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA (STATSSA). 2020. Census of commercial agriculture, 2017—Financial and production statistics. Report No. 11-02-01 (2017). Pretoria

TAKAHASHI, K., MURAOKA, R. & OTSUKA, K. 2020. Technology adoption, impact, and extension in developing countries’ agriculture: A review of the recent literature. Agric. Econ., 51:31-45

TROTTER, M.G., LAMB, D.W., HINCH, G.N. & GUPPY, C.N. 2010. GNSS tracking of livestock: Towards variable fertilizer strategies for the grazing industry. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, 18-21 July, Denver, Colorado, USA

TURNER, L.W., UDAL, M.C., LARSON, B.T. & SHEARER, S.A. 2000. Monitoring cattle behavior and pasture use with GPS and GIS. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 80:405-413

VAN MARLE-KÖSTER, E. & VISSER, C. 2018. Genetic improvement in South African livestock: Can genomics bridge the gap between the developed and developing sectors? Front. Genet. 9:331

VAN NIEKERK, J.A, MAHLOBOGOANE, M. & TIRIVANHU, P. 2015. The transfer of intergenerational family knowledge for sustainable commercial farming in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa: Lessons for extension. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 43(1):66-77

VERSTER, T. & FOURIE, E. 2018. The good, the bad and the ugly of South African fatal road accidents. S. Afr. J. Sci., 114(7-8):63-69

VETTER, S. 2013. Development and sustainable management of rangeland commons – Aligning policy with the realities of South Africa’s rural landscape. Afr. J. Range For. Sci., 30(1-2):1-9

VINK, N. & VAN ROOYEN, J.C. 2009. The economic performance of agriculture in South Africa since 1994: Implications for food security. Development Planning Working Paper Series No. 17. Development Bank of Southern Africa, Midrand, South Africa

WORTH, S.H. 2006. Agriflection: A learning model for agricultural extension in South Africa. J. Agric. Edu. Ext., 12(3):179-193

WORTH, S.H., 2008. An assessment of the appropriateness of agricultural extension education in South Africa. PhD Thesis. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

ZANTSI, S. & BESTER, B. 2019a. Revisiting the benefits of animal traction to subsistence smallholder farmers: A case study of Ndabakazi villages in Butterworth, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 47(3):1-13

ZANTSI, S. & BESTER, B. 2019b. Change in farming households’ livelihood strategies in Ndabakazi villages, Eastern Cape: What are the implications to agricultural extension services? S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 47(4):120-134

ZANTSI, S., GREYLING, J.C. & VINK, N. 2019. Towards a common understanding of ‘emerging farmer’ in a South African context using data from a survey of three district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 47(2):81-93

ZANTSI, S. & MACK, G. 2019. Degree and determinants of smallholder commercialisation in rural former homeland areas of South Africa. International Association of Agricultural Economist Symposium on ‘Small-holder farms in market integration – Lessons and experiences from South and East Asia’, 11-13 November, Nanjing, China

ZANTSI, S. & MACK, G. 2020. Towards a viable farm size – Determining a viable farm household income for emerging farmers in South Africa’s Land Redistribution Programme: An income aspiration. Manuscript resubmitted to Agrekon

ZWANE, E.M. & GROENEWALD, I.B. 2014. Critical factors influencing performance of extensionists in Limpopo Department of Agriculture in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Agric. Ext., 42(1):49-61

ZWANE A.A., VAN MARLE-KÖSTER, E., GREYLING B.J. & MAPHOLI, N. 2013. A review: Forensic DNA technology to meet the stock theft challenges in South Africa. Appl. Anim. Husb. Rural Dev., 6: 36-47
Views
  • Abstract 86
  • PDF 58
Views and downloads are with effect from 11 January 2018
Published
2021-04-19
Section
Articles